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The term “chronic bronchitis” is still used to define a productive cough that is present for at least three months each year for two years. This includes decreasing rates of smoking and improving indoor and outdoor air quality. While treatment can slow worsening, no cure is known. As of 2015, COPD affected about 174. It typically occurs in people over the age of 40.
Males and females are affected equally commonly. In 2015, it resulted in 3. 2 million deaths, up from 2. 4 million deaths in 1990.
The number of deaths is projected to increase further because of higher smoking rates in the developing world, and an aging population in many countries. The sound of wheezing as heard with a stethoscope. If different types of COPD exist is unclear. While previously divided into emphysema and chronic bronchitis, emphysema is only a description of lung changes rather than a disease itself, and chronic bronchitis is simply a descriptor of symptoms that may or may not occur with COPD. A chronic cough is often the first symptom to develop.
This condition can occur before COPD fully develops. The amount of sputum produced can change over hours to days. In some cases, the cough may not be present or may only occur occasionally and may not be productive. Some people with COPD attribute the symptoms to a “smoker’s cough”. Sputum may be swallowed or spat out, depending often on social and cultural factors.
Shortness of breath is often the symptom that most bothers people. It is commonly described as: “my breathing requires effort,” “I feel out of breath,” or “I can’t get enough air in”. Different terms, however, may be used in different cultures. Typically the shortness of breath is worse on exertion of a prolonged duration and worsens over time.
It is a source of both anxiety and a poor quality of life in those with COPD. In COPD, breathing out may take longer to than breathing in. COPD, but is relatively uncommon. COPD is more common than any other lung disease as a cause of cor pulmonale. Cor pulmonale has become less common since the use of supplemental oxygen.
COPD often occurs along with a number of other conditions, due in part to shared risk factors. COPD and should prompt investigations for an underlying lung cancer. The primary cause of COPD is tobacco smoke, with occupational exposure and pollution from indoor fires being significant causes in some countries. Typically, these exposures must occur over several decades before symptoms develop. A person’s genetic makeup also affects the risk. Percentage of males smoking tobacco as of the late 1990s and early 2000s. Note the scales used for females and males differ.
Additionally, women are more susceptible to the harmful effects of smoke than men. Water-pipe smoke appears to be as harmful as smoking cigarettes. Problems from marijuana smoke may only be with heavy use. For the same amount of cigarette smoking, women have a higher risk of COPD than men. These fires are a method of cooking and heating for nearly 3 billion people, with their health effects being greater among women due to more exposure. People who live in large cities have a higher rate of COPD compared to people who live in rural areas. The overall effect in relation to smoking, however, is believed to be small.